Being in the Present

KhaiThien

Dear Friends:

 

            You have studied the “Guidelines for spiritual practice,” “Meanings of repentance,” and “The Bodhicitta.” These are the important belongings on the way of building up the basic and practical understandings necessary not only for your real life of happiness, but also for your own spiritual journey. After having learned such essential guidelines for both thinking and practice, now is the time for you to carry out those basic steps—not to have some ideas or intellectual reasoning about happiness, but to live happiness in the here and now. One of the fundamentals introduced here is “Being in the present,” an essential practice of Buddhist meditation that was taught by the Buddha. The Buddha himself as well as his holy disciples also practiced this technique. The discussion below will help you understand this special practice of “Being in the present.”

1. The Meanings of Being in the Present:

            Being in the present is a basic practice of mindfulness taught by the Buddha in many sutras on meditation. One of those sutras is the Samiddhi Sutra (Pali: Sutta), whichtells us a story about a young monk named Samiddhi who was deeply involved in the practice of being in the present. Thefollowing is the introduction of the Samiddhi Sutra:

Thus have I heard: The Exalted One was once staying at Rājagaha in the TapodāPark.

Now the Venerable Samiddhi, as the dawn drew near arose and went to the Hot Springs to bathe. And after his bath, he came out of the Hot Springs and stood clad in a single garment, drying his limbs.

Then a certain deva, when the night was far spent, illuminating all the Hot-Spring lake with her effulgent beauty, came up to the Venerable Samiddhi and, floating in the air, uttered these verses:

 

Ne’er having had thy fill thou seekest alms,

O almsman; yea, nor taking now thy fill

Thou seekest alms. O almsman, take thy fill

Then seek thine alms. Let not the hour slip by!

 [Venerable Samiddhi replied:]

Naught of thine ‘hour’ know I. Mine hour is hid,

Not manifest. Therefore I seek mine alms

Not taking first my fill, lest the hour pass me by.

 

Now that fairy took her stand on the earth and spoke to Samiddhi thus: Thou art young, bhikkhu, to have left the world, and callow, black-haired and blessed with luck of youth; thou hast not in thine early prime had the fun that belongs to natural desires. Take thy fill, bhikkhu, of human pleasures. Give not up the things of the present to pursue that which involves time.

‘I, friend, have not given up the things of the present to pursue that which involves time. Nay, I have given up that which involves time to pursue the things of present [the here and now]. Things involving time [subject to time], friend, as the Exalted One hath said, are the pleasures of sense, full of ill, full of anxiety; that way lies abundant disaster. A thing of the present is this Norm [Dharma], not involving time, inviting to come and see, leading onward, to be regarded by the wise as a personal experience.’

‘In what way, bhikkhu, hath the Exalted One pronounced the pleasures of sense to involve time, to be full of ill, full of anxiety, conducive to abundant disaster? In what way is this Norm a thing of the present, not involving time, inviting to come and see, leading onward, to be regarded by the wise as a personal experience?’

‘I, friend, am a novice [monk]; I have but lately left the world, and am newly admitted. I am not able to explain the Norm and Rule in detail. But the Exalted One, who is Arahant, fully enlightened, he is staying at Rājagaha in the Tapodā Park. Go to that Exalted One and ask him of this matter. Bear in mind that wherewith he shall answer you.’[1]

 

            As evident in the introduction above, the Samiddhi Sutra introduces an essential and realistic topic of spiritual practice related to the concept of time: “subject to time” and the “here and now”—both being in thepresent moments. However, what we shall discuss here is particularly focused on the meaning of “here and now,” the principal teaching of practicing “being in the present,” which is also known as a special technique of insight-meditation.

            In brief, “being in the present” in the practice of meditation is “to be with existential dharmas (existences) in the here and now,” “to live peacefully in the present moments with awareness, attention, and alertness,” or “to live in full awareness of the present moments.” Absolutely, the concept of “present” here in “being in the present” is understood as being in the “reality-stream of the here and now,” which transcends all the limits of time (not subject to time) as we use it in ordinary life. The “present” of which we are speaking here has nothing to do with our notion of time such as past, present, and future, but it is the real life of the here and now. Thus, to live in the present moment is to live in the here and now without any implication to the notion of time-limit.

            Basically, in the phrase “being in the present,” the word being is an important element that emphasizes the essential of inner awakening—that is, to reside peacefully in the state of full awareness. Lacking awareness, we are unable to reside or stay in the present moment—the here and now—calmly. Thus, the word being here has a special connotation that is “living with awareness, attention, and alertness in every moment of life.” For this reason, theSamiddhi Sutra says, “Whereas this Dhamma[2] is visible here-and-now, not subject to time, inviting all to come and see, pertinent, to be known by the wise for themselves.” In other words, “being in the present” is the principle of living in the stream of reality—a reality that each person must experience by him- or herself.Along the way of spiritual practice, particularly when practicing “being in the present,” each person must “come and see” by oneself, must know by oneself, and must realize by oneself; no other person or saint can give us an awakening or enlighten us. In the DighaNikaya, the Buddha explained that his experience of enlightenment was in fact the highest realization of dharma (yathabhutam)—the absolute truth or universal law. He emphasized that “the Dharma […] was to be directly perceived (sanditthika), beyond limits of time (akalika), to be personally experienced (ehipassika), altogether persuasive (opanayika), and to be understood each for himself by the wise (paccattamveditabbovinnuhi).”[3] This all focuses on the specific figure of meditation. The truth is that, without awareness and attention in each moment of life, we cannot practice the path of “being in the present.” Likewise, if we are still disturbed or governed by the notion of time—past, present, and future—we are unable to reside in the meditation of “being in the present.”

            For instance, when you are eating, you are enjoying the taste of the food. But if your mind, while eating, runs after or is absorbed in any object of thought, imagination, or dream about money, the house, the car, children, etc., in doing so, you no longer pay attention to the taste of your food; instead, what you eat is just your dream and imagination! This is called “losing mindfulness” or being without concentration and awareness while eating; consequently, your mouth eats foods but your mind eats your imagination! It is not until your stomach is unable to take in anymore food that the idea of “being full” appears in your mind—that is it! Eating in such a manner, your meal is really tasteless and bland. You are not eating in mindfulness, but without awareness and attention; therefore, you lose your ability to taste foods and instead let your mind be absorbed in dreaming.

Regarding this problem of “losing mindfulness,” Confucius believed that without mindfulness, we look but do not see, hear but do not know, eat but do not perceive the tastes. To the contrary, eating in the mode of mindfulness—namely, eating in the manner of concentration, awareness, and attention—you would have a real chance to enjoy your meal in the most practical sense. This illustration of eating in mindfulness shows us the important element of personal experience in our spiritual practice, specifically in practicing meditation. The point is that, on your spiritual journey, you are the only person who experiences the taste of life; you yourself know what it is like: sweet or bitter, hot or cold, good or bad, and pleasant or unpleasant. That is why the Buddha emphasized that “The Dharma […] was to be directly perceived (sanditthika), beyond limits of time (akalika), to be personally experienced (ehipassika), altogether persuasive (opanayika), and to be understood each for himself by the wise (paccattamveditabbovinnuhi).”[4]

            Consequently, it is important to keep in mind that, in practicing “being in the present,” you should not embrace the idea that “you are trying to practice this dharma (being in the present) today so that tomorrow (future) you will have a peaceful and happy life in return!” If you bear such thinking in mind while practicing “being in the present,” you cannot experience true happiness regardless of how long you spend practicing this path since “being in the present” is not a promise of any future happiness! Conversely, to practice this path is to live in happiness and awareness, steadily and soundly, in each single breath, each single step, and each single action; of course, the level of peace and happiness depends upon your awareness and awakening. When you practice this path but you do not experience actual peace and happiness, you are practicing the wrong way. Thus, in order for you to be able to practice “being in the present,” you must live your whole life in each single breath—in and out, with full awareness, attention, and alertness. For this reason, “being in the present” is not a form of praying or reciting the Buddhas’ names so many times so that when you die you will be reborn in the blissful world of the Buddhas; on the contrary, you must live in the here and now fully and soundly, without any illusion or imagination about the future world. Only full awareness of the here and now may help you get in touch with the reality-stream of the present being.

            2. How Are You Living?

            Such a question can be raised from the reality of our lives. Take a look at your real life. How do you live your life, except your sound sleep without dreams? How much time do you spend living in the present moment—i.e., living fully with your existence in each present moment? Truly, in the most practical sense, we do trade too much of our real life for illusive imaginations and thoughts in sadness, anger, hatred, love, or hate…or in hope and fear of either the far-gone past or the promising future. Even now, in this present moment, we still continue to live in worry and anxiety of gain and loss, success and failure, etc. Such mental factors actually permanently invade almost all places in our life. The fact is, each breath of our life always carries in itself the anguish of fear and hope, even when we are facing ourselves alone. Likewise, everything that we name as earthly happiness—love, money, fame, power, etc.—actually always bears in itself the permanent fear and hope of loss and gain, win and failure!

            Indeed, the nature of our life and even of what we call happiness in the world of sensual pleasures is, as the Samiddhi Sutra says, “subject to time, of much stress, much despair, and greater drawbacks.” For example, how much effort and energy have you spent in order to possess things that you wish for: love, reputation, or property? And how did you actually live with the things you wished for? Looking deeply into such facts, we definitely cannot hide the grief and bitterness in the inner life, most of which is occupied by the fear and hope of either the illusions of the far-gone past or the imaginations of the far future. Other causes of grief and bitterness, such as mental impressions of desire and love, are also deeply embedded into the current stream of mind, which burns our inner peace and tranquility every time our desires for worldly feelings arise. For this reason, in order to be free from all illusions and defilements right in the present moment, the Buddha in the BhaddekarattaSutta (An Auspicious Day) taught:

Let not a person revive the past

Or on the future build his hopes

For the past has been left behind

And the future has not been reached.

Instead with insight let him see

Each presently arisen state;

Let him know that and be sure of it

Invincibly and unshakably.

Today the effort must be made;

Tomorrow death may come, who knows?

No bargain with Mortality

Can keep him and his hordes away,

But one who dwells thus ardently,

Relentlessly, by day, by night—

It is he, the Peaceful sage has said,

Who has had a single excellent night.[5]

           

Reading the verses from the sutra above, you may quickly think that “not revive the past” sounds acceptable in one way or another, but “not hope or yearn for the future” is really a difficult idea and not easy to accept since you are attached to the thought that, without “yearning for the future,” how will your life exist? Such a question comes not from your sense of a true life, but from your habits of craving and grasping. Truly, when you raise such a question, it says your habits of craving and grasping have arisen in your mind and invaded your mind-stream on the way to reaching the state of being in the present moments! It is crucial to keep in mind that we are studying and practicing the path of being in the present in order to truly liberate us from the inner world of illusions and false imaginations so that we are able to unite with our true life of happiness in the here and now. We are not talking about “giving up” any project. Thus, you should not confuse this matter!

               In reality, giving up the habit of reviving the past and thinking of the future is really not an easy task for an agitated mind! The greatest barrier that blocks your way in reaching the realm of being in the present is nothing more than the habit of “reviving the past and yearning for the future.” It is also this habit that always disturbs the tranquility and peace of your mind even when you are all alone in your own room. Together with this habit is a big ego that fills up all the places in your mind. Being in such a state, how can you clearly unite with the mysteriousness of the here and now? The fact is that, as long as you look for or attach to pleasures either in the memory of the past or the unreal life of the imagined future, you are still immersed in the ocean of illusions and imaginations! Living in such a way, you are the one who loses your own true life! Therefore, in order for you to live and live in true happiness, the path of being in the present is really necessary and useful. The Buddha called this path of living the “life of insight”—namely, living peacefully in the here and now with mindfulness.

            3. What is Mindfulness?

            Mindfulness is the essence of all paths of practice in Buddhism, regardless of various teachings of either tradition or development. Basically, mindfulness is the mental energy of awareness and awakening that helps us realize the rise and fall of all dharmas (thought or object of consciousness and existence) in the life-stream, either internally or externally. When you are in mindfulness—i.e., aware, attentive, and alert—you are able to recognize all the mental phenomena as well as their appearances and transformations in both your mind and your body. Thus, when you practice mindfulness, your mind and body always unite together; the mind must exist in the same place or act of the body. If your body stays in one place whereas your mind resides in another place, that is called losing mindfulness. For instance, when you stay in your house but your mind wanders with some mind-objects outside the house, you have lost mindfulness and you are living with imaginations; in other words, you are led by your thought! Thanks to the union of the body and mind—being in the present moment—you do not drift away in the stream of thought and imagination, whether past, future, or with any object of consciousness. Therefore, practicing mindfulness will first help you reside firmly in the union of mind and body so that you are able to realize (or be aware of) whatever rises and falls in the “present being” in each present moment. If you are unable to be aware of the rise and fall of each idea, thought, or object of consciousness, you will drift away with them.

            For example, when practicing sitting meditation, in the first few seconds, you may fully control your mind in the state of awareness, attention, and alertness—namely, you know exactly what (thought, idea, imagination, etc.,) rises and falls in the present mind-stream. Whenever a thought, idea, or imagination arises, you recognize this immediately through the awareness with which you are observing it; then you return to the state of one-pointed mind—concentration—instead of following it. In the next few seconds, a thought, idea, or imagination again arises in your mind-stream, but this time you are not aware of the rise and fall of it—lacking mindfulness, you go with it until some noise (a bell, for instance) wakes you up; at this point, you realize that you have lost mindfulness. Right after a thought, idea, or imagination arises, if you recognize it with awareness, attention, and alertness and remain with mindfulness, that thought, idea, or imagination will disappear immediately. Not until you actually reside firmly in mindfulness—i.e., you are being in each present moment—will you be able to create certain insights (depending on the level of mindfulness) that will help you deeply realize the mysteriousness of life existing right in the here and now. This is the only way through which you may harmonize with the life-stream of reality.

            However, to have a strong mindfulness, you must practice it in various ways day in and day out. For instance, when eating, you have to chew food slowly and carefully and appreciate the taste of food with your full mindfulness. Do not let any thought or imagination (worry, sorrow, sadness, etc.,) invade your mind and interfere in your eating time. Thus, you need to practice mindfulness not only in your meditation time, but also in everyday activities such as eating, working, resting, and sleeping. You should keep paying attention to everything you do with all your awareness, always and everywhere. The most important thing you should bear in mind is that in practicing mindfulness you must always have awareness, attention, and alertness (like a cat staring at a mouse). In such a manner, you must recognize the rise and fall of each kind of thought (craving, hatred, grasping, etc.,) or each kind of feeling (pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral) that continuously presents itself momentarily in your mind-stream. You need to practice such a way in everyday activities so that you may develop your mind (concentration) to a stronger degree.

4. Mindfulness of Breathing

            In the AnāpāsatiSutta, the Buddha taught us practicing mindfulness by following our breathing, in and out; in the state of meditation or that of tranquility, our sense-organs temporarily close, and only our breathing in and out is present. In the practical experience of meditation, your breath is considered a formless string that ties your mind, keeps it with the body, and does not let it wander with any object of consciousness outside the body. The fact is, when you concentrate on your breathing, you unite your mind and body together on the circulation of breathing in and out. The Buddha taught:

Here, a bhikkhu, gone to the forest, or to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down; having folded his legs crosswise, set his body erect, and established mindfulness in front of him, ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

(1) Breathing in long, he understands: “I breathe in long”; or breathing out long, he understands: “I am breathing out long”;

(2) Breathing in short, he understands: “I breathe in short”; or breathing out short, he understands: “I breathe out short”;

(3) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body [of breath]”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body [of breath].”

(4) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in tranquillizing the body formation”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out tranquillizing the body formation.”

(5) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing rapture”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing rapture.”

(6) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing pleasure”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing pleasure.”

(7) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the mental formation”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the mental formation.”

(8) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in tranquillizing the mental formation”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out tranquillizing the mental formation.”

(9) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the mind”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the mind.”

(10) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in gladdening the mind”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out gladdening the mind.”

(11) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in concentrating the mind”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out concentrating the mind.”

(12) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in liberating the mind”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out liberating the mind.”

(13) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating impermanence”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating impermanence.”

(14) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating fading away”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating fading away.”

(15) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating cessation”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating cessation.”

(16) He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating relinquishment”; he trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating relinquishment.”

Bhikkhus, that is how mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated, so that it is of great fruit and great benefit.[6]

            In reality, when practicing mindfulness, particularly the first time, you need to practice with a teacher so that you will not practice in the wrong way. If you practice by yourself at home, you need an empty and peaceful place (or your bedroom) with fresh air. Then follow the steps below:

            Sit on a meditation cushion in the lotus position (cross-legged) with the body upright (you may also sit on a chair and put your feet on the floor, but your back must be upright). Put your hands under the navel. You must sit in a state of comfort, firmness, and peacefulness. Do not stress your body or stretch it. Do not compress or hold back your breath. Just let your breath go in and out naturally and comfortably. The most important thing is to feel comfortable, stable, and joyful before concentrating on your breathing and observe your mind-stream silently with awareness, attention, and alertness. You should not hurry in your practice. You must practice each subject of meditation skillfully before moving on to another. In sitting meditation, you may go gradually from the first foundation of mindfulness to the last one. There are sixteen subjects of mindfulness, divided into four foundations as follows:

            a. Foundation of the body:

(1) “I breathe in long”; “I breathe out long.”

(2) “I breathe in short”; “I breathe out short.”

(3) “I breathe in experiencing the whole body [of breath]”; “I breathe out experiencing the whole body [of breath].”

(4) “I breathe in tranquillizing the body formation”; “I breathe out tranquillizing the body formation.”

b. Foundation of feeling:

(1) “I breathe in experiencing rapture”; “I breathe out experiencing rapture.”

(2) “I breathe in experiencing pleasure”; “I breathe out experiencing pleasure.”

(3) “I breathe in experiencing the mental formation”; “I breathe out experiencing the mental formation.”

(4) “I breathe in tranquillizing the mental formation”; “I breathe out tranquillizing the mental formation.”

c. Foundation of mind:

(1) “I breathe in experiencing the mind”; “I breathe out experiencing the mind.”

(2) “I breathe in gladdening the mind”; “I breathe out gladdening the mind.”

(3) “I breathe in concentrating the mind”; “I breathe out concentrating the mind.”

(4) “I breathe in liberating the mind”; “I breathe out liberating the mind.”

d. Foundation of Dharma (existence):

(1) “I breathe in contemplating impermanence”; “I breathe out contemplating impermanence.”

(2) “I breathe in contemplating fading away”; “I breathe out contemplating fading away.”

(3) “I breathe in contemplating cessation”; “I breathe out contemplating cessation.”

(4) “I breathe in contemplating relinquishment”; “I breathe out contemplating relinquishment.”

            During the time of meditation, all that appears in your mind is nothing but illusion. Thus knowing, you do not attach to any illusion, but remain with your breathing and your awareness, attention, and alertness; the illusion (in your mind) will disappear immediately. You may develop your sitting skill gradually, practicing longer and longer each day; for the beginner, you must practice at least ten to thirty minutes for the first stage of practice. You should keep in mind that sitting meditation is the practice that lets your mind and body unite in awareness, tranquility, and joyfulness; the end goal of it is not to “create a halo,” but for the purification of the mind and to create inner awakening. Whenever your mind becomes tranquil, free of defilements, your insights will appear naturally. In addition to practicing sitting meditation, you should also practice walking meditation and resting meditation. Generally, the more you practice, the more peaceful and happy you will be. The truth is that you create your thought, but your thought always controls your life. You cannot control your thought like controlling an electrical switch, turning it on or off any time you like. Thus, practicing meditation is a noble path that may help you purify and control your mind immediately when you practice being in the present. You may apply this practice in any position: walking, standing, lying, and sitting.

            As always, you should begin meditation with your breath. When anger or any kind of feeling (pleasure, sadness, worry, lamentation, etc.,) arises, you also adjust it by staying with your breathing in and out. Indeed, you may adjust and control your current of energy of both the mind and body by dealing with your breathing. The truth is that you are still alive if anybody leaves you; but your life will end whenever your breath stops working. Thus, your breath is always present with you in all situations; it is really your closest friend, whether you notice it or not. As we have mentioned, breathing is a practical path through which we may purify, adjust, and control the mind and body complex. In particular, when the mind is in a disorderly state, you may use your breathing in and out (as introduced in the sixteen subjects) to calm it and refresh it. When you focus on your breathing—or more exactly, unite with your breath—you are able to calm your mind by just breathing in and out slowly, regularly, and soundly. The more you breathe in such a manner, the calmer your mind will be. In the same way, when your body has uncomfortable feelings or some problems related to physical energy, you also cure them by breathing in and out slowly, soundly and regularly in the mode of mindfulness. Practicing in such a way, you may recover your energy as well as renew your life with confidence, joyfulness, and peace. Like the character of air or blood, without good circulation, your life would become sick and tasteless. Physically, breathing is an excellent tool for renewing life. Likewise, in curing inner defilements, breathing is really the best tool for purification of the mind. For example, during an outburst of anger, if you stay firmly with your breathing in and out, slowly and soundly, the energy of anger or any negativity would be significantly reduced.

            Particularly in spiritual practice, concentrating on the circulation in and out of your breath will help you recognize the impermanent nature of the mind and body complex. You will have a chance to see that the life of your own existence is as faint as your breath. Breathing in without breathing out is the end of life; nothing is left if the circulation of breathing stops working. The same can be said of feelings, perception, volitions, and consciousness. Thanks to the individual experience of impermanence of the mind and body complex, you are able to amend negative energies, such as craving, grasping, hatred, worry, and fear, by cultivating compassion and wisdom. In doing so, you actually nurture the energy of forgiveness, generosity, loving-kindness, and altruism. Furthermore, it is important to notice that compassion and wisdom are the foundation of your true happiness. They will nurture your sainted mind as well as guide you to overcome all defilements, which come from the negative energy of the worldly life. Generally, in practicing being in the present, your breath, your pure mind, and your heart of compassion are the lifeboat that will help you pass through all the defilements and help you reside firmly and peacefully in the here and now.

            In summary, being in the present is the miraculous practice that will help you live in true happiness in the here and now. Mindfulness and awareness in your breathing form the path leading to freedom from all sufferings right here and now in this very body and mind. Residing in the state of one-pointed mind and pure concentration, no defilement is able to disturb the blissfulness and peace of your inner life because, in the state of one-pointed mind, you can truly liberate yourself from all troubles and sufferings of the mundane world and live a life free of all delusions. In the ItivuttakaSutta, the Buddha said:

No one other thing

so obstructs people

that they wander on, day and night,

as when they’re ensnared

with delusion.

But those who, letting go of delusion,

Shatter the mass of darkness,

Wander no further.

Their cause isn't found. (Iti.1.14)

 

Wishing you achieve “being in the present”!

 

 

 



[1]Mrs. Rhys Davids (trans) SamyuttaNikaya (The Book of Kindred Saying) Part I. (Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1993) 14-16.

See also another translation by BhikkhuThanissaro, theSamiddhiSutta.1999. Source: 19 Nov. 2007 <http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn01/sn01.020.than.html>. In this translation, BhikkhuThanissaro also gives an important note that “This discourse also contains some word play on the words ‘time’(kala) and ‘subject to time’(kalika).‘Time’ can mean not only time in the general sense, but also one’s time of death (a person who has died is said to have ‘done his/her time’). These two meanings of the word underlie the first exchange between Ven. Samiddhi and the devata. ‘Subject to time’ can mean ‘obtainable only after a certain time’ or ‘good only for a certain length of time’: these meanings underlie their second exchange.”

[2]Dhamma (Pali), Dharma (Sanskrit)

[3]Daisetz T. Suzuki,Essay in Zen Buddhism. Vol. Three.(New York: Grove Press, 1961) 61.

[4] See footnote 3.

[5]Bhikkhu Bodhi (trans.). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the MajjhimaNikāya(Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 2000)MN. 131 (BhaddekarattaSutta) 1039.

[6]Bodhi 943-944. See also theKāyagatāsatiSutta, SatipathānaSutta.


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